Uncategorized acetyl-salicylic acid, Archaeology, aspirin, Black Willow, Florida, Florida Archaeology, Florida Archaeology Month, Florida Archaeology Month 2011, Florida History, Florida Public Archaeology Network, medicine, Native Americans, North Florida, plant, red root, salicin, Salix caroliniana, Salix nigra, semi-synthetic drug, Southeast, Southeastern Indian, Willow
Description: Shrubby or tree to 30ft.(caroliniana).Tree to 100 ft. or more (nigra), trunks often leaning. Leaves finely sharp toothed to 6 inches, pointed. Male and female flowers on separate trees, with drooping catkins about 2 inches long.
Black willow (Salix nigra) in early fall.
All parts of the willow plant contain salicin, a precursor to acetyl-salicylic acid (aspirin). Metabolic action in the liver, kidneys, and intestines converts plant compounds to aspirin after consumption. This metabolic action of the plants compounds actually creates an aspirin tailor fitted to the metabolism and body chemistry of the person ingesting it. The medicine that the Muskogee Indians create using this plant is a liquid called Mikko Hoyvniche, which when translated means, “King Passing Through”. This illustrates the importance of this medicine in the Southeastern Indian spirituality. It is used both as a medicine to cure aches and pains as well as used in ceremonies. Historically important to Native Americans of the southeast, the willow continues to be held in high regard by traditional people of native descent. Old-timers may call it “red root”.
Many types of willow are currently used in the production of aspirin. Aspirin is the most widely available semi-synthetic drug in the world. Black willow (Salix nigra) is the most common type found throughout North Florida.
Early aspirin bottle. Aspirin is still made using compounds from the willow plant.
Uncategorized black drink, caffeine, cassina, coffee, Florida, Florida Archaeology Month, Florida Archaeology Month 2011, Florida Public Archaeology Network, Ilex vomitoria, medicine, North America, North Carolina, plant Yaupon, pre-columbian, purging, Southeastern Indian, tea, trade, vomit, Yaupon Holly, yaupon tea
Description: Evergreen shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. Leaves to 2 inches long, elliptical, leathery, round toothed. Red berries in clusters.
Possibly the most misunderstood medicine plant in the southeast, Yaupon is widely believed to induce vomiting. This idea is false; yaupon tea no more induces vomiting than does coffee or the tea we drink today. This misconception likely arises from early European observers misinterpreting the ceremonial activities of native southeastern people.
While some ritual purging of the beverage may have occurred in certain circumstances, this purging was voluntary. It was usually accomplished by a large quantity of hot tea being consumed very quickly, the purging was not induced by any chemical compounds in the plant.
Southeastern ceremony involving "Black Dri
Yaupon is the only plant native to North America known to produce significant amounts of caffeine, yaupon was an extremely valued commodity in pre-Columbian society. The plant, plant parts, and plant products were traded extensively from the Ohio River Valley to peninsular Florida, the coastal Carolinas and beyond.
Shortly after arrival in Florida, the Spanish began to suffer shortages of coffee, and quickly adopted the native tea as a replacement. Consumption of yaupon tea remained popular throughout the southeast for centuries, and persists in some areas today. Modern inhabitants of North Carolinas outer banks region drink yaupon tea, called cassina.